| design of animation sequence in computer graphics

By Karen Maierhofer

Computer Graphics HAND BOOK 2013 | design of animation sequence in computer graphics
Computer Graphics HAND BOOK 2013 | design of animation sequence in computer graphics | design of animation sequence in computer graphics

It takes aptitude and the appropriate accoutrement to accomplish beheld furnishings of all kinds, whether it’s architectonics amazing environments, creating amazing creatures or crafting conscientious characters casting in a above role for film, television, amateur or short-form projects.

Indeed, we are accustomed with industry-leading agreeable conception accoutrement such as Autodesk’s Maya, Foundry’s Mari and more, which, back placed into the calmly of creatives, the aftereffect in authentic agenda magic. In fact, there is actually a bit of abstruse abracadabra that occurs at beheld furnishings facilities, including one affectionate in accurate that may not accept the inherent action of clay and action accoutrement but is aloof as basic to the beheld furnishings process: storage. Accumulator solutions are the unsung heroes abaft best projects, alive abaft the scenes to board artists and accumulate their advantageous juices flowing.

Here we appraise three VFX accessories and their use of assorted accumulator solutions and setups as they accouterment projects ample and small.

FramestoreSince it was founded in 1986, Framestore has placed its beheld brand on a deluge of Oscar-, Emmy- and British Academy Blur Award-winning beheld furnishings projects, including Harry Potter, Gravity and Guardians of the Galaxy. With added added projects, Framestore advertisement from its aboriginal UK area in London to North American locales such as Montreal, New York, Los Angeles and Chicago, administration films as able-bodied as immersive agenda adventures and chip advertisements for iconic brands, including Guinness, Geico, Coke and BMW.

Beren Lewis

As the aggregation and its workload grew and advertisement into added areas, including chip advertising, so, too, did its accumulator needs. “Innovative changes, such as virtual-reality projects, brought on aerial appeal for accumulator and top-tier performance,” says NYC-based Beren Lewis, CTO of announcement and activated technologies at Framestore. “The aggregation is generally appropriate to apace board assorted workflows, including stereoscopic 4K and VR.”

Without hesitation, Lewis believes accumulator is about the best arduous aspect of technology aural the VFX workflow. “If the accumulator isn’t working, again neither are the artists,” he credibility out. Furthermore, any issues with accumulator can potentially advance to massive banking implications for the aggregation due to absent time and revenue.

According to Lewis, Framestore uses its accumulator band-aid — a Pixit PixStor General Parallel Book Arrangement (GPFS) accumulator array application the NetApp E-Series accouterments – for all its activity data. This includes backups to alien co-location sites, video preprocessing, decompression, adversity accretion preparation, scalability and aerial achievement for VFX, finishing and apprehension workloads.

The flat confused all the chip announcement teams over to the PixStor GPFS clusters this accomplished spring. Currently, Framestore has bristles primary PixStor clusters application NetApp E-Series in use at anniversary appointment in London, LA, Chicago and Montreal.

According to Lewis, Framestore partnered with Pixit Media and NetApp to booty on added complicated and resource-hungry VR projects. “This affiliation has provided the all-around chip announcement aggregation with college achievement and ceaseless admission to data,” he says. “The Pixit Media PixStor software-defined scale-out accumulator band-aid alive on NetApp E-Series systems brings fast, reliable abstracts admission for the chip announcement analysis so the aggregation can embrace achievement and bendability above all bristles sites, booty a cost-effective, simplified admission to adversity accretion and accept a modular basement to abutment assorted workflows and approaching expansion.”


Framestore called its accepted band-aid afterwards reviewing several above accumulator technologies. It was attractive for a distinct namespace that was actual stable, while accouterment abundant performance, but it additionally had to be scalable, Lewis notes. “The PixStor ticked all those boxes and provided the appropriate antithesis amid enterprise-grade accouterments and support, and open-source standards,” he explains. “That antithesis accustomed us to seamlessly board the PixStor into our network, while still advancement abounding of the bespoke accoutrement and casework that we had developed centralized over the years, with minimum development time.”

Computer animation Computer Graphics | design of animation sequence in computer graphics
Computer animation Computer Graphics | design of animation sequence in computer graphics | design of animation sequence in computer graphics

In particular, the accumulator band-aid provides the appropriate aerial achievement so that the studio’s VFX, finishing and apprehension workloads can all run “full-out with no abrogating aftereffect on the finishing editors’ or clear artists’ user experience,” Lewis says. “This is a game-changing adequacy for an industry that about partitions off these three workloads to accumulate artists from accepting to arrest operations. PixStor alive on E-Series consolidates all three workloads assimilate a distinct IT basement with automated end-to-end assembly of projects, which reduces both time to achievement and operational costs, while both IT accretion and aliment costs are reduced.”

At Framestore, amalgam accumulator into the workflow is simple. The aboriginal footfall afterwards a activity is green-lit is the enactment of a new book set on the PixStor GPFS cluster, area ingested footage and all the CG artist-generated activity abstracts will live. “The PixStor is at the affection of the chip announcement accumulator workflow from alpha to finish,” Lewis says. Because the PixStor GPFS array serves as the primary accumulator for all chip announcement activity data, the division’s workstations, renderfarm, alteration and finishing stations affix to the array for review, bearing and accumulator of activity content.

Prior to the move to PixStor/NetApp, Framestore had been application a cardinal of altered accumulator offerings. According to Lewis, they all suffered from the aforementioned issues in agreement of scalability and abasement of achievement beneath cede amount — and that amount was accepting added and added capricious with every project. “We bare a technology that scaled and accustomed us to advance a distinct namespace but not ache from connected slowdowns for artists due to renderfarm amount during crisis times or activity delivery.”


As Lewis explains, with the PixStor/NetApp solution, processing was alive up to 270,000 IOPS (I/O operations per second), which was at atomic several times what Framestore’s antecedent basement would accept been able to handle in a distinct namespace. “Notably, the development workflow for a above theme-park ride was abundantly by all the VR preprocessing, while backups to alien co-location sites synched every two hours after compromising the artist, apprehension or finishing workloads,” he says. “This provided a cost-effective, simplified admission to adversity recovery, and Framestore now has a fast, deeply chip belvedere to abutment its amplification plans.”

To breach at the top of its game, Framestore is consistently reviewing new technologies, and accumulator is generally allotment of that conversation. To this end, the flat affairs to body on the success it has had with PixStor by accretion the accumulator to handle some added beat playback and cede workloads application an all-Non-Volatile Memory Express (NVMe) beam tier. Added projects board a analysis of article accumulator technology for use as a long-term, off-premises accumulator ambition for archival data.

Without question, the industry’s beheld demands are rapidly changing. Not continued ago, Framestore could calmly adumbrate accumulator and cede requirements for a archetypal project. But that is no best the case, and the flat finds itself alive in ever-increasing resolutions and anatomy rates. Whereas projects may accept been as baby as 3TB in the contempo past, nowadays the flat consistently handles assorted projects of 300TB or larger. And the accumulator charge be aggregate with added projects of capricious sizes and scope.

“This new ‘unknowns’ aspect of our workflow puts abounding strains on all aspects of our pipeline, but abnormally the storage,” Lewis credibility out. “Knowing that our accumulator can cope with the amount and can calibration allows us to about-face our absorption to the added issues that these new types of projects accompany to Framestore.”

As Lewis notes, alive with high-resolution images and ample renderfarms actualize a altered set of challenges for any accumulator technology that’s not apparent in abounding added fields. The VFX will generally analysis any accumulator technology able-bodied above what added industries are able of. “If there’s an affair or a breach point, we will about acquisition it in amazing fashion,” he adds.

Rising Sun PicturesAs a contributor to the architectonics and beheading of computer-generated furnishings on added than 100 affection films back its birth 22 years ago, Rising Sun Pictures (RSP) has pushed the abstruse bar abounding times over in blur as able-bodied as television projects. Based in Adelaide, South Australia, RSP has congenital a top aggregation of VFX artists who accept tackled such box-office hits as Thor: Ragnarok, X-Men and Bold of Thrones, as able-bodied as the Harry Potter and Hunger Amateur franchises.

Mark Day

Such demanding, high-level projects crave demanding, high-level effects, which, in turn, appeal a high-performance, reliable accumulator band-aid able of administration capricious abstracts I/O profiles. “With added than 200 advisers accessing and autograph files in assorted formats, the charge for a fast, reliable and scalable band-aid is ascendant to business continuity,” says Mark Day, administrator of engineering at RSP.

Computer animation Computer Graphics | design of animation sequence in computer graphics
Computer animation Computer Graphics | design of animation sequence in computer graphics | design of animation sequence in computer graphics

Recently, RSP installed an Oracle ZS5 accumulator apparatus to handle this important function. This high-performance, unified accumulator arrangement provides NAS and SAN cloud-converged accumulator capabilities that accredit on-premises accumulator to seamlessly admission Oracle Public Cloud. Its avant-garde accouterments and software architectonics includes a multi-threading SMP accumulator operating arrangement for alive assorted workloads and avant-garde abstracts casework after achievement degradation. The alms additionally caches abstracts on DRAM or beam accumulation for optimal achievement and efficiency, while befitting abstracts cautiously stored on high-capacity SSD (solid accompaniment disk) or HDD (hard deejay drive) storage.

Previously, the flat had been application an Dell EMC Isilon accumulator array with Avere caching appliances, and the aggregation is still employing the band-aid for genitalia of its workflow.

When it came time to advancement to handle RSP’s added workload, the adeptness ran a affidavit of abstraction with assorted vendors in September 2016 and benchmarked their systems. Impressed with Oracle, RSP began accession in aboriginal 2017. According to Day, RSP admired the solution’s adeptness to abutment above packet sizes — now up to 1MB. In addition, he says its “exceptional” analytics agent gives brooding into a cede job.

“It has a actual ambrosial [total amount of ownership], and it has caching appropriate out of the box, removing the charge for added caching appliances,” says Day. Accumulator is at the centermost of RSP’s workflow, autumn all the accordant advice for every administration — from live-action plates that are angry over from clients, arena bureaucracy files and multi-terabyte accumulation files to iterations of the final product. “All advisers assignment off this storage, and it needs to board the needs of assorted projects and deadlines with aught downtime,” Day adds.

Machine Room

“Visual furnishings scenes are accepting added complex, and in turn, abstracts sizes are increasing. Alive in 4K quadruples book sizes and, therefore, impacts accumulator performance,” explains Day. “We bare a band-aid that could cope with these requirements and approaching trends in the industry.”

According to Day, the abstracts RSP deals with is broad, from baby bureaucracy files to terabyte geocache files. A one-minute 2K DPX arrangement is 17GB for the final pass, while 4K is 68GB. “Keep in apperception this is alone the final pass; a distinct attempt could board hundreds of passes for a abundant computer-generated sequence,” he credibility out.

Thus, high-performance accumulator is important to the able operation of a beheld furnishings aggregation like RSP. In fact, accumulator helps the artists breach on the artistic bend by enabling them to iterate through the artistic action of crafting a attempt and a look. “Artists are appropriate to iterate their artistic action abounding times to absolute the attending of a shot, and if they acquaintance slowdowns back loading scenes, this can accept a affecting aftereffect on how abounding iterations they can produce. And in turn, this affects employees’ adeptness and, ultimately, the advantage of the company,” says Day.

Thor: Ragnarok

Most recently, RSP acclimated its new accumulator band-aid for assignment on the blockbuster Thor: Ragnarok, in particular, for the Val’s Flashback arrangement — which was acutely circuitous and complex all-encompassing lighting and arrangement data, as able-bodied as high-frame-rate plates (sometimes added than 1,000fps for assorted live-action footage plates). “Before, our accumulator brace aboriginal versions of this attempt could booty up to 24 hours to cede on our server farm. But back installing our new storage, we saw this acutely bargain to six hours — that’s a 3x improvement, which is a absurd outcome,” says Day.

Outpost VFXA full-service VFX flat for film, advertisement and commercials, Outpost VFX, based in Bournemouth, England, has been operational back backward 2012. Back that time, the adeptness has been growing by leaps and bounds, demography on above projects, including Life, Nocturnal Animals, Jason Bourne and 47 Meters Down.

Paul Francis

Computer Graphics Chapter 12 Computer Animation. - ppt video ..
Computer Graphics Chapter 12 Computer Animation. – ppt video .. | design of animation sequence in computer graphics

Due to this adequately accelerated expansion, Outpost VFX has apparent the charge for added accommodation in its accumulator needs. “As the aggregation grows and as resolution increases and HDR comes in, book sizes increase, and we charge abundant added accommodation to accord with that effectively,” says CTO Paul Francis.

When ambience up the adeptness bristles years ago, the accommodation was fabricated to go with PixStor from Pixit Media and Synology’s NAS for its accumulator solution. “It’s an industry-recognized band-aid that is acutely airy to errors. It’s fast, able-bodied and the aggregation at Pixit provides accomplished support, which is important to us,” says Francis.

Foremost, the band-aid had to accommodate aerial accommodation and aerial speeds. “We charge lots of accompanying admission to abstain bottlenecks and ensure accelerated commitment of data,” Francis adds. “This is the alone one we’ve used, really. It has accepted to be abiding abundant to abutment us through our advance over the aftermost brace of years — advance that has included a concrete appointment move and an admission in artisan accommodation to 80 seats.”

Outpost VFX mainly works with angel abstracts and activity files for use with Autodesk’s Maya, Foundry’s Nuke, Side Effects’ Houdini and added VFX and action tools. The claiming this presents is twofold, both ample and small: affair for ample book sizes, and problems the accumulation can face with baby files, such as metadata. Francis explains: “Sequentially loading baby files can be time-consuming due to the accepted technology, so affective to article that can handle both of these areas will be of abundant account to us.”

Locally, artists use a mix of HDDs from a cardinal of altered manufacturers to abundance advertence adumbration and so alternating — older-generation PCs accept mostly Western Agenda HDDs while newer PCs accept all-encompassing SSDs. Back replacing or advance equipment, Outpost VFX uses Samsung 900 Series SSDs, depending on the appropriate achievement and accepted bazaar prices.


Like abounding facilities, Outpost VFX is consistently belief its options back it comes to award the best band-aid for its accepted and approaching needs. Presently, it is attractive at agreeable up some of its accumulator solutions into abate segments for greater resilience. “When you alone accept one accumulator band-aid and it fails, aggregate goes down. We’re attractive to breach our bureaucracy into smaller, faster solutions,” says Francis.

Additionally, aegis is a affair for Outpost VFX back it comes to its clients. According to Francis, assertive shows charge to be annexed, acceptation the flat will charge a abstracted accumulator band-aid alfresco of its capital arrangement to handle that data.

When Outpost VFX begins a job, the accumulation ingests all the plates it needs to assignment on, and they abide in a new job binder created by assembly and assigned to a specific drive for alive jobs. This binder again becomes the go-to for all assets, elements and attempt iterations created throughout the production. For aegis purposes, these areas of the server are alone arresting to and attainable by artists, who in about-face cannot admission the Internet; this ensures that the files are “watertight and allowed to leaks,” says Francis, abacus that with PixStor, the flat is able to set up altered partitions for altered areas that artists can jump amid easily.

How important is accumulator to Outpost VFX? “Frankly, there’d be no operation after storage!” Francis says emphatically. “We accord with hundreds of terrabytes of abstracts in beheld effects, so accepting high-capacity, reliable accumulator accessible to us at all times is actually capital to ensure a bland and acknowledged operation.”

47 Meters Down

Because the flat delivers beheld furnishings above film, TV and commercials simultaneously, accumulator is an important bureau no amount what the aggregation is alive on. A contempo blur activity like 47 Meters Bottomward appropriate the abounding area of beheld furnishings work, as Outpost VFX was the sole bell-ringer for the project. So, the flat bare the amplitude and admiration of a accumulator arrangement that enabled them to bear added than 420 shots, a cardinal of which featured abundant 3D builds and assorted layers of cede elements.

Computer animation Computer Graphics | design of animation sequence in computer graphics
Computer animation Computer Graphics | design of animation sequence in computer graphics | design of animation sequence in computer graphics

“We had alone about 30 artists at that point, so accepting a abiding band-aid that was accessible for our aggregation to cross and use was crucial,” Francis credibility out.

Main Image: From Outpost VFX’s Domestos bartering out of bureau MullenLowe London.

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Computer animation Computer Graphics | design of animation sequence in computer graphics
Computer animation Computer Graphics | design of animation sequence in computer graphics | design of animation sequence in computer graphics

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